What is the spleen?
Spleen Located on the left side of the abdomen, near the stomach and behind the left ribs, the tongue-like spleen is a spongy organ with high blood flow that cleans old and damaged red blood cells and removes bacteria from the blood. It acts as a reservoir that stores blood for the body's sudden needs. Although the spleen is an important part of the immune system, it can be removed from the reticuloendothelial system, people can continue their normal lives without a spleen. It’s because the liver can take over the many functions of the spleen.
What is the spleen and what are its types?
The presence of a mass and lump in the spleen is called a spleen tumor. Its incidence is not common compared to other parenchymal organs. Spleen tumors are examined in two separate groups lymphoid and non-lymphoid. The most common lymphoid tumors are vascular tumors, including malignant and benign hemangiomas, littoral cell angiomas, lymphangiomas, and hemangioendothelioma. Non-lymphoid tumors such as lipoma, fibrosarcoma, and neuroma are so rare that they can only be reported anecdotally. Spleen tumors can originate from the spleen's tissue, or they can also occur as a result of metastasis from other organs such as the breast and lungs.
Common benign and malignant tumors are as follows;
- Littoral cell angiomas
- Inflammatory pseudotumor
- Malignant tumors
- Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
- Metastatic Tumors
What Are The Clinical Features And Diagnostic Methods Of Spleen Tumors?
Spleen tumors do not have fixed clinical features that cause certain complaints.
They are generally discovered by chance, as a result of examinations such as CT scans performed after patients present with other diseases and complaints, or during operations such as laparotomy and laparoscopy. The most common finding is spleen enlargement. There may be pain and tenderness in the upper part of the abdomen. Problems can be seen such as anemia due to the size of the tumors, abnormal decrease in the granulocyte density in the blood, and low platelet count may occur. Blood tests may be used to check that the spleen is functioning and to look for tumor markers. To determine the spleen tumor, the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up process are started by using radiological methods such as ultrasound, CT (CT (computerized tomography), and MRI(magnetic resonance imaging).
Signs And Symptoms Of The Presence Of Spleen Tumor
Although the presence of spleen tumors does not usually cause significant complaints, some of the observed signs and symptoms of spleen tumors are as follows;
- NHL: Spleen enlargement (Splenomegaly) structural symptoms
- Angiosarcomas: Upper quadrant pain and palpable abdominal mass
- Metastatic tumors: Spleen enlargement
- Hemangiomas: They usually show asymptomatic features
- Lymphangiomas: They usually show asymptomatic features.
- Inflammatory pseudotumor: It manifests with malaise, fever, and weight loss.
When should treatment be started?
In the following cases, intervention should be made without delay;
If you have severe abdominal pain
- Secondary spleen infection
- High risk of rupture
What Are The Treatment Methods For Spleen Tumors?
For all primary malignant tumors, splenectomy (spleen surgery) is performed and the spleen is surgically removed. Partial or full splenectomy is performed for benign tumors that are symptomatic and at risk of rupture. Splenectomy can be performed by open surgery (laparotomy) or by laparoscopic surgery.