Breast cancer develops with the uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the milk ducts of the breast tissue, which are responsible for milk production. This condition occurs in 1 in 8 women worldwide. 80% of these cases occur due to the uncontrolled proliferation of cells in the milk ducts. In addition, in the remaining 20% of patients, this situation shows improvement in the mammary glands. Early diagnosis is extremely important for its treatment. For this reason, every woman should do a manual examination after the age of 20. Women between the ages of 40 and 69 should have a mammogram once a year to have the condition checked.
What is Breast Cancer?
Breast; It consists of glands, milk ducts, mammary lobes, sinuses, network tissue, glands and ligaments. Although breast cancer is mostly seen in women, men can also experience this condition. After this cancer, some deterioration can be seen in the DNA of healthy cells. Cells multiply uncontrollably accordingly. Cancerous cells divide and multiply faster than healthy cells. As a result, cancerous cells can lead to aggregation. Tumors can be benign as well as malignant. Benign tumors are called benign and malignant tumors are also called malignant. In addition, tumors cause different effects in the body. The proliferation of malignant cells, called benign, is slow at first and does not cause any symptoms. Therefore, most patients do not notice the condition in the initial period. This spreads to the lymph nodes of the cancer and to different parts of the body through the circulatory system.
Breast cancer, which usually occurs between the ages of 50 and 70, is more common in people with a first-degree relative with a tumor. It is the most common type of female cancer, accounting for 24% of all female cancers. Researches also report that one out of every 8 women will be caught in a certain period of their life. In this type of cancer, which can rarely be experienced in men, 1 man is diagnosed for every 100 women. Again, studies show that the incidence is increasing every year. However, with advances in technology and medicine, early diagnosis and treatment is possible.
What Are the Symptoms of Breast Cancer?
The initial stage of this type of cancer progresses slowly and may not show symptoms in the initial stage. Generally observed breast cancer symptoms are as follows:
- Severe pain not experienced before during menstrual periods
- Two breasts look different in shape
- weight loss
- breast enlargement
- Red or pink discharge from the breast
- Thickening or irritation of the breast skin
- Nipple pain, peeling
- collapse of the nipple
- pain in the breast
Although this cancer seen in men has similar symptoms, men generally have secretions from the nipples and redness of the nipples. In addition to these symptoms, painless swelling of the breast, dimpling of the nipple, swelling and shrinkage can also be seen. However, these symptoms may not always indicate cancer, but the person should consult a doctor as soon as possible.
Risk Factors of Breast Cancer
Unchangeable risk factors in breast cancer are extremely important. Family history, which is one of these risk factors, comes first among the risk factors. This type of cancer, which is seen before the age of 50 in a person's family history, increases the probability of getting this cancer. Another important risk factor is the dense breast tissue. The risk is increased in people with less fat in the breast tissue. This risk and the density of breast tissue are also measured by sonographic and mammographic methods.
The risk factor that causes the formation in women is menstruation at an early age. Especially people who menstruate before the age of 11, as well as those who enter menopause at a late age are also at risk. In addition, women who are pregnant after the age of 30 and people who are above their ideal weight are in the risk group. Other risk factors are as follows:
- Being in childbearing age and above ideal weight
- advancing age
- Having a family history
- sedentary lifestyle
- Genetic predisposition
- Receiving radiotherapy treatment before the age of 15
Types of Breast Cancer
Breast cancer is divided into two main groups:
1) Noninvasive cancer that does not spread and does not exceed the breast tissue
2) Invasive cancer that extends beyond the breast tissue and spreads
Noninvasive cancer is also divided into two different groups as ductal carcinoma in situ and lobular carcinoma in situ.
Ductal Carcinoma Insitu (DKI): This type of cancer, which does not show itself on examination, is detected on mammography.
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LKI): It is abnormal cell growth.
Breast Cancer Stages
There is staging in breast cancer, which is a slowly progressive cancer. In this cancer, the tumor reaches 1 cm in size in 5 to 7 years. This tumor can spread first to the lymph nodes under the arm with lymph channels and then to distant organs such as liver and bone via blood. For this reason, staging is done to determine the stage of the tumor and where it has spread. A system called TNM is used for this staging.