The elimination of certain health problems may make surgical procedure necessary. However, during this procedure, the patient may encounter ache and pain. In order for this pain not to be felt by the patient, numbing, that is, anesthesia, is performed before the surgical procedure. The drugs used for anesthesiology and reanimation are performed by doctors who are specialists in this field. Because knowing the effect of the drugs applied to the patient during anesthesiology on the body is one of the most important points of this application. In addition to this important point, general medical information, neuroanatomy and monitors are also of great importance for the correct implementation of the procedure in order to understand the physiological functions of the patients. In this process, anesthesiologists determine the necessary method according to the condition of the operation and the physiological conditions of the patient. General anesthesia method is preferred for long-term operations by professionals, while local anesthesia is applied for shorter operations.
What is Anesthesiology and Reanimation?
The anesthesia process, which means numbness, includes reanimation and a number of medical applications performed by anesthesiologists. During the surgical procedure, while the patient's vital activities are continuing, the elimination of the patient's consciousness, sensation and reflex is important for the success of the operation process. With the anesthesia application, which provides comfort for both the patient and the doctor, the patient's reflexes are suppressed and it eases the procedure to be performed by relaxing the patient. At this point, anesthesiologists, who perform an crucial task, ensure the continuity of the patient's numbness throughout the surgical procedure and wake the patient by ceasing the anesthesia drugs after the surgical procedure.
What are the Types of Anesthesia?
General Anesthesia: For this procedure, anesthesiologists meet the patient in the operating room and take him to the operating table. Then the anesthesiologist connects the heart monitor to the devices required for the procedure. With the help of these devices, the patient's vital functions are kept under surveillance throughout the surgical procedure process. Then, the specialist applies special drugs that will create a state of sleep through the vascular route and allow the patient's muscles to relax. After finishing this procedure, the anesthesiologist uses the respiratory tract to give the patient different anesthetic gases along with oxygen. With this procedure, a controlled closure of the patient's consciousness is performed. The anesthesiologist is present with the patient during the operation that the patient will undergo. In this process, the doctor monitors the patient's pulse, body temperature, respiration, oxygen density in his/her tissues and blood pressure and makes sure that all the vital functions of the patient are working well. The duration of anesthesia varies depending on the surgery to be performed on the patient. After the completion of the operation, the anesthesiologist turns off all anesthetics and pulls out the respiratory tract tube. Then, the patient is taken to the wake-up room to recover and his/her general condition is reviewed.
Regional Anesthesia: It is a type of anesthesia used in some surgeries, especially childbirth. In addition to epidural and spinal anesthesia applied for both cesarean section and normal delivery, combined epidural anesthesia can also be applied. With this anesthesia method, the patient remains consciously awake and, despite this, does not experience any pain sensations during the surgical process.
Spinal Anesthesia: Surgical procedures are applied for areas below the waist level or waist area and are performed before both normal delivery and cesarean section. During cesarean, the mother can hold her baby on her lap without feeling any pain. While the doctor applies this anesthesia, the patient is seated and then the lumbar region is sterilized and injections are made. After this procedure, numbness begins in the patient's legs and feet. Spinal anesthesia is also applied at a lower dose than epidural anesthesia. The anaesthetist stays in the operating room during the operation that the patient will undergo and checks the patient's vital functions. After the completion of the procedure, the feeling of drowsiness experienced by the patient continues for about 2-3 hours. This type of anesthesia creates quite an advantage in that it provides a quick effect, prevents the feeling of pain, although the patient's consciousness is clear, does not create a feeling of nausea or vomiting.
Epidural Anesthesia: It is one of the anesthesia methods that stops the transmission of pain in a certain area. It is used in many surgical procedures, especially childbirth. Although it has a similar application method as spinal anesthesia, the injection process is performed outside the spinal sac located in the cerebrospinal fluid. After 15 minutes following this application, the feeling of pain is suppressed. It has advantages such as being effective in relieving labor pains, keeping the consciousness open and not experiencing the feeling of pain during the operation, speeding up labor when applied at the right time.
Combined Spinal Epidural Anesthesia: In this method, epidural and spinal anesthesia are applied together. The anaesthetist first applies anesthesia with the help of a spinal injection, and then injects an epidural with a catheter. The patient can feel the pull on the touch and tissues without experiencing the feeling of pain. The drugs given do not reach the baby. Comparing to general anesthesia, the recovery process completes quite quickly.
Local Anesthesia: It is applied in surgical procedures in limited areas. These operations can be classified as aesthetic procedures, circumcision, mole removal, abscess, dermatological application and tooth extraction. This anesthesia injection method can be applied by rubbing on the skin or by spraying method
What diseases are related to Anesthesia and Reanimation?
Anesthesia basically includes three methods: local, general and regional. Therefore, it uses different methods for different diseases. These:
- In case of heart, lung diseases of the patient during surgical procedures applied to the abdomen, leg and arm area with general anesthesia
- In surgical operations involving an area or below the waist with regional anesthesia
- Inguinal hernia with regional anesthesia, hip-knee replacements, bladder surgery, childbirth
- Local anesthesia is before the operation of a smaller area