Prostate cancer is one of the most common diseases in men. This type of cancer, which ranks second among the causes of death due to cancer, is located in the lower part of the urinary bladder. This condition, which occurs as a result of the cells formed in the prostate tissues being abnormal, is frequently seen in men over 65 years of age. Sometimes, although it may appear with symptoms, it can also be seen silently without any symptoms. However, if it is not treated, it also puts pressure on the urinary canal and causes various problems with urination. If the diagnosis and treatment is delayed, then the cancerous tissues may not only remain in the prostate, but may also damage other tissues. In such a case, the tumor grade and cancer stage should be checked.
PSA is one of the tests that is checked with a blood sample. With this test, cancer can be diagnosed in a short time. Early diagnosis is important so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. Along with the PSA test, the patient should be examined in the first stage, and additional tests should be performed in order to reach a decision as a result of the tests.
It is one of the methods used to support the diagnosis of the disease. Cancerous cells have a different appearance than other healthy cells. It is possible to monitor this situation with multiparametric MR. In addition, the spread of cancerous cells to the lymph nodes by passing the prostate capsule can also be detected in this way.
Taking a sample of any part of the body together with various tests and microscopic examinations is called biopsy. By taking samples from different parts of the prostate, the biopsy procedure determines whether there are cancerous cells. Accuracy rates in diagnosis have increased with the developing technology.
STANDARD PROSTATE BIOPSY
With the help of a special ultrasound device, biopsy incisions are first made. In the biopsy procedure performed under local anesthesia, the patient does not need to be hospitalized. Ultrasound helps picking parts from the right points. In cases where the result is doubtful, this process may need to be repeated.
MR-ULTRASOUND FUSION BIOPSY
The MR images taken from the patient before are sent to the ultrasound device and the location of the tumor can be determined. Although the pieces are taken randomly in the classical biopsy, it becomes possible to detect the suspicious spots thanks to this procedure.
Prostate cancer, which is frequently seen in men over the age of 70, can also be detected in many people aged 90 and over. Individuals encounter this disorder at the age of 50 at the earliest. For this reason, screening should be started at the age of 50 and above. Studies show that if there is a prostate cancer condition in the family history, cancer can be found in 15% of individuals. For this reason, studies to identify gene groups are still being carried out. In addition, habits such as smoking and obesity also trigger this condition.
Although the symptoms of prostate cancer are not always obvious, in some cases the most common symptoms are as follows:
- Blood in semen
- Blood in the urine and difficulty urinating
- Burning upon urination
- Bone metastases, bone pain and related fractures.
For individuals who have missed routine checkups and screening tests, treatment may be delayed. This is because the disease may progress silently.
WHAT ARE THE RISK FACTORS OF PROSTATE CANCER?
The most important risk factors for prostate cancer are age and family history.
The likelihood of developing prostate cancer increases with age. 50% of men over the age of 70 may have this disorder, albeit at a microscopic level.
Studies show that approximately 15% of patients with prostate cancer have a history in their family members. The genes responsible for the formation of cancer are examined.
Besides family history and age, smoking is among the most important risk factors.
Prostate cancer stages; The evaluation is made according to the grade and stage of the tumor.
Stage 1: The tumor is located in the prostate at this stage. The tumor, which is so small that it cannot be felt with rectal examinations, but it is expected that it has not spread to different parts of the body.
Stage 2: At this stage, the tumor has progressed into the prostate. It does not spread around. It can be detected by rectal examination and imaging methods. At this stage, there is no damage to the lymph nodes or other regions.
Stage 3:In addition to the prostate, the cancer cell has advanced to the sperm sacs. There is no spatter or spread at this stage.
Stage 4: It is possible to spread around the prostate and other tissues. Progression to the liver, lungs, and bones can be seen, as well as to the lymph nodes. The course of the disease should be followed in order to determine the degree and stage of the cancer.
Prostate cancer treatment methods include the detection of the disease and a patient-specific planning. In this planning, various criteria such as the general health status of the patient, age, other diseases and stage, if any, are taken into account. A treatment plan is created with different methods such as surgery, hormone therapy and radiotherapy. Today, surgical treatment is often preferred in such cases. With the widespread use of tests for diagnostic purposes, it has become possible to detect the disease at an early stage.
After prostate cancer is detected, an operation is performed by surgically removing the prostate. This procedure is called radical prostatectomy. In the case of 10-year disease, the survival rate was determined as 90%.
In addition, many people wonder whether this ailment is fatal or not. Although it carries a risk of death, it should not be forgotten that early diagnosis saves lives. Prostate cancer, which can spread to other organs and grow and develop in the prostate gland, is treated even if it is at stage 4. Generally, various treatment combinations are applied in such cases, and hormone therapy is also among the preferred treatment methods.
In the 1st and 2nd stages, surgery and radiotherapy and then hormonal therapy are performed, while in the 3rd stage, only surgery or radiotherapy can be applied. In the initial stages, a surgical procedure called radical prostatectomy can be performed. The surrounding tissues of the prostate are removed. The chance of success is the same in both of these surgical procedures applied with open or closed methods. However, in closed operations, the time to leave the hospital will be shortened. Urinary incontinence and reduced penile erection or erectile dysfunction may occur after surgery. With the help of nerve-sparing surgery, the problem of erection can be minimized. Radiotherapy is also frequently applied today, and after this procedure, problems in bowel or urination may occur.
If prostate cancer is at an advanced stage, hormone therapy is recommended. In local and advanced diseases, the cancerous tissue has overflowed to other organs and tissues. When the surrounding lymph nodes are examined, cancerous cells are also detected in these tissues. In such patients, after the surgical removal of the prostate, radiotherapy and hormone treatment are started. However, this only applies if the cancer has not spread to the bone. If the cancer has spread to the bone, both testicles will be removed with hormone therapy. After 18 to 24 weeks, most patients may not respond to hormone therapy. At this stage, chemotherapy will be given to the patients and will be examined by oncology specialists.