With advancing age and various reasons, a person may experience joint pain. These pains can also cause loss of function over time. However, with joint prosthesis surgery, the patient's lost functions in the joint area are regained. With this procedure, which is also called arthroplasty, the joint that causes difficulty in movement or disorder is restored to its former structure with some surgical methods and, if necessary, with a prosthesis.
What is Arthroplasty?
“What is arthroplasty?” The question is often asked by those who have joint pain and want to be treated. Arthroplasty, also known as joint replacement; It is the surgical reconstruction or shaping of the joint that has lost its function due to some reasons. Joint prosthesis is generally used in joints that carry the weight of the body and have large surfaces, such as hip and knee joints. However, developments in technology and medicine have made this surgical procedure applicable for joints such as the wrist, ankle, shoulder and elbow.
On Which Joints Is Arthroplasty Usually Applied?
Arthroplasty, which is in the Orthopedics and Traumatology department, is among the most commonly used methods for the treatment of joint pain. Frequently applied arthroplasty surgeries are as follows:
- Total hip replacement surgery
- Total knee replacement surgery
- Shoulder prosthesis surgery
What Are the Types of Arthroplasty?
Arthroplasty, which enables the reshaping of the patient and the joint that has lost its function, has different types according to the method of application. The main types of joint prosthesis are as follows:
- Resection arthroplasty
- Interposition arthroplasty
- Partial endoprosthesis arthroplasty
- Total joint arthroplasty
Resection Arthroplasty: The articular surface that causes the complaints in the person is removed. After this process, it is aimed to give the joint maximum range of motion.
Interposition Arthroplasty: In this application, soft tissue is added to the joints. The bone that causes restriction of movement in the wrist can be removed and a tendon can be added instead. Partial Endoprosthesis Arthroplasty: In this procedure, part of the joint is supported by a prosthesis. Thus, the joint is given a mechanical function.
Total Endoprosthesis Arthroplasty: It is the replacement of both parts of the deformed joint. This procedure is generally applied to the hip and knee joints, and can also be applied to the wrist, ankle, shoulder, elbow and lumbar spine.
Complications that may be experienced after the surgical procedure
Like any surgical procedure, some complications may occur after arthroplasty. The occurrence of these complications is closely related to some characteristics of the patient and the procedure applied. Complications that can be seen are as follows:
Infection: It is a common complication. Antibiotic or debridement treatment is applied when the infection condition of the person is diagnosed in the early period. However, in case of chronic infection, removal of the prosthesis, use of antibiotics and then revision procedure are in question.
Dislocation: After the operation, separation and dislocations may occur in the joints due to inadequate processing or the use of inappropriate materials. Joint integrity can be achieved with closed surgery, open surgery or revision surgery.
Fractures around the joint: Fractures may occur around the prosthesis due to trauma. In appropriate cases, treatment can be performed with revision or fixation surgeries.
Embolism: It is a complication that is usually seen in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty.
Considerations After the Surgical Procedure
For older patients, surgery is usually performed under local anesthesia. After the surgery, the person may experience pain, but these pains can be controlled with drugs. If there are no complications after the surgery, the patient can usually start walking after 1 day and the patient is discharged after 3 days. In this process, the patient can walk at home with the help of a walker. Following are the things that the patient should pay attention to after the surgery:
- The patient should sleep with a pillow between his legs for 6 weeks after the surgery.
- It is also important that the person does not sit on low seats and chairs.
- It is inconvenient for the patient to cross his legs.
- It is also inconvenient for the patient to put all his weight on the operated leg after the procedure.
- One should avoid squatting and be very careful while walking.
- Personal care should be given importance in order to avoid infection.
What is Total Hip Replacement?
Total hip replacement, also called total hip arthroplasty, replaces the hip joint with severe deformation using an artificial joint. With this procedure, limitation of movement and pain are eliminated and the quality of life of the person is increased. The application of this procedure differs according to the age, gender, and complaints of the patient. The duration of use of total hip prostheses is 15-20 years.
What is Total Shoulder Prosthesis?
Severe pain due to wear, calcification or cartilage in the shoulder joint