• Update Date: 03-06-2023

Joint replacement

Joint replacement

Joint pain can occur with advancing age and for a variety of reasons. This pain can also lead to loss of function over time. In a joint prosthesis operation, however, the patient's lost functions in the joint area are regained. In this procedure, which is also known as endoprosthetics, the stiff or damaged joint is rebuilt to its former structure using a number of surgical methods and, if necessary, a prosthesis.

What is endoprosthetics?
"What is arthroplasty?" The question is often asked by people who have joint pain and want to be treated. arthroplasty, also known as joint replacement; It is the surgical reconstruction or shaping of the joint that has lost its function for some reason. Joint prostheses are generally used in joints that support the body's weight and have large surface areas, such as hip and knee joints. However, developments in technology and medicine have made this surgical procedure applicable to joints such as the wrist, ankle, shoulder and elbow.

Which joints are usually endoprosthetics used on?
Endoprosthetics, located in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, is one of the most commonly used methods of treating joint pain. Commonly used arthroplasty surgeries are as follows:
• Total hip replacement
• Total knee replacement
• Shoulder prosthesis surgery

What are the types of arthroplasty?
Arthroplasty, which allows recovery of the patient and the joint that has lost its function, is divided into several types depending on the type of application. The main types of joint prostheses are as follows:
• Resection arthroplasty
• Interposition arthroplasty
• Endoprosthetic partial arthroplasty
• Total joint arthroplasty

Resection arthroplasty: The joint surface that is causing the person's discomfort is removed. After this procedure, the aim is to give the joint maximum freedom of movement.

Interpositional Arthroplasty: In this application, soft tissue is added to the joints. The bone causing the limitation of movement in the wrist can be removed and a tendon added in its place.

Partial Arthroplasty Arthroplasty: In this procedure, part of the joint is supported by a prosthesis. This gives the joint a mechanical function.
Total Arthroplasty Arthroplasty: It is the replacement of both parts of the deformed joint. This procedure is generally used on the hip and knee joints, but can also be used on the hand, foot, shoulder, elbow, and lumbar spine.

Complications that may arise after surgical intervention
As with any surgical procedure, some complications can occur after an arthroplasty. The occurrence of these complications is closely related to some characteristics of the patient and the procedure used. Complications that can be seen are as follows:

Infection: It is a common complication. Antibiotic or debridement treatment is used when the person's infectious condition is diagnosed in the early stages. However, if the infection is chronic, removal of the prosthesis, use of antibiotics, and subsequent revision surgery are options.

Dislocation: After the operation, due to insufficient processing or the use of inappropriate materials, there may be separation and dislocation in the joints. Joint integrity can be achieved through closed surgery, open surgery, or revision surgery.
Fractures around the joint: Due to trauma, fractures can occur around the prosthesis. In appropriate cases, treatment can be carried out with revision or fixation operations.

Embolism: This is a complication that usually occurs in patients undergoing hip and knee arthroplasty.

Post-surgical considerations
In older patients, the operation is usually performed under local anesthesia. After the surgery, the person may feel pain, but this pain can be controlled with medication. If there are no complications after the operation, usually the patient can walk after 1 day and the patient is discharged after 3 days. The patient can walk at home with the help of a walker. The patient should note the following after the operation:
• The patient should sleep with a pillow between the legs for 6 weeks after the operation.
• It is also important that the person does not sit on low seats and chairs.
• It is uncomfortable for the patient to cross his legs.
• It is also inconvenient for the patient to put all their weight on the operated leg after the procedure.

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