What is Hypertension? What are Hypertension Symptoms and Treatment?

What is Hypertension? What are Hypertension Symptoms and Treatment?

High blood pressure is the main risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. Billions of people around the world live with high blood pressure, which is one of the causes of many diseases and premature death. What's more, about half of people living with this disorder are not even aware of their condition. 

What is Hypertension?

“What is hypertension?” The question can be answered as if the blood in the vessel exerts high pressure towards the vessel wall. The blood pressure value, known as blood pressure, is different for each person. It is also divided into diastolic and systolic. Systolic refers to the blood pressure at which blood pushes against the veins and is known as systolic blood pressure. Diastolic is the condition of having blood pressure in the veins when the heart is relaxed and is diastolic. In adults older than 18 years of age, resting normal systolic blood pressure is the highest value of 120 mmHg and the highest value of diastolic blood pressure is 80 mmHg. These values are above normal in patients.

High blood pressure, also called hypertension, does not cause any symptoms in some people and does not interfere with the person's routine life. Such patients continue to live for many years without knowing their problem. However, this situation quietly affects the vital organs and systems of the person, such as the brain, cardiovascular system, kidney, without giving any symptoms for a long time. Due to high blood pressure, conditions such as blockage, rupture or enlargement of the vessels that feed the organs may occur. It can also cause impaired blood flow to the organs, causing a person to experience organ failure. For this reason, it must be followed and controlled by a specialist.

What are the Symptoms of Hypertension?

While the symptoms of hypertension can be observed in some individuals, it is insidious in some individuals. However, when this situation rises to a level that endanger the person's life, symptoms such as headache, shortness of breath and nosebleeds can be seen. For this reason, it is very important to see a doctor every 2 years from the age of 18 and have the values measured at regular intervals. Especially individuals between the ages of 18-39 should have their blood pressure measured every year. The symptoms of high blood pressure that rises above 180/110 mmHg and is constantly in this range are as follows:

  • frequent urination
  • blurred vision or double vision
  • swelling of the legs
  • Experiencing nosebleeds
  • Headache and turning
  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness and fatigue in the person
  • ringing in the ear
  • Irregularity and pain in the heartbeat

What are the Causes of Hypertension?

“What causes hypertension?” If you are wondering why, you should know that this situation is due to many reasons. The causes of life-threatening hypertension, which can lead to serious diseases if not controlled, are as follows:

  • Excessive salt consumption
  • Diabetes
  • Genetic predisposition
  • sedentary life
  • Obesity
  • Smoking and alcohol consumption
  • Stress

How is Hypertension Diagnosed?

Although hypertension is known as a headache and some symptoms, it is insidious in most people. Therefore, early diagnosis is of great importance. If the blood pressure is above the required values, the high blood pressure that develops can be brought under control after the diagnosis made with expert control. However, the diagnosis is not made with a one-time blood pressure measurement. Because there are multiple factors that affect a person's blood pressure. For example, a person's blood pressure may rise momentarily in a state of panic or excitement. For this reason, it is important to measure blood pressure multiple times over 2 weeks to establish the correct diagnosis. In addition, physical examination, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests and echocardiography are performed for the diagnosis.

Problems Caused by Hypertension

When hypertension values are high, the average life expectancy of the person is shortened and the quality of life decreases. With the decrease in the quality of life, the person may experience organ failure and many diseases. Stroke risk is one of these diseases. The risk of stroke due to the condition may occur in the form of a blood clot in the brain vessels or a brain hemorrhage. This also significantly increases the risk of heart attack. It can also cause vascular occlusion. Bleeding under the eyes, kidney failure and heart failure are among the diseases that can be experienced.

Hypertension Treatment

Regarding the treatment process, often “What is good for hypertension?” the question is asked. However, the treatment process is a whole. In other words, it requires an accurate diagnosis, regular measurement, expert follow-up, healthy eating, movement, keeping stress under control and correct medication use. The aim of treatment is to lower the person's blood pressure below 140/90 mm Hg. If the patient has organ damage, diabetes and kidney failure, blood pressure is expected to be lower. During the treatment process, it is extremely important for the person to limit salt intake, exercise at regular intervals, and control his weight. Like other treatments, high blood pressure treatment is planned individually and appropriate medication is given to the patient.

What is the Treatment of Resistant Hypertension?

Personalized effective methods are used for the treatment of resistant hypertension. One of these methods is the carotid artery pile. This approach, which was developed for the treatment of advanced heart failure, also offers an effective treatment for patients with resistant high blood pressure. The carotid pile is a system connected to a battery with a stimulator placed on the jugular vein and a cable placed on the chest muscle. It is inserted in a process similar to the insertion of a pacemaker. The receptor located in the person's carotid vein stimulates the parasympathetic system in response to blood pressure rises and lowers blood pressure. This is not a sufficient condition for high blood pressure patients. However, with a battery placed on the carotid artery, this area is stimulated and blood pressure is effectively reduced.

Hypertension Drugs

Hypertension drugs are one of the most effective methods in the treatment. With the use of these drugs, effective control of blood pressure in patients can be achieved in 1 out of every 2 patients. Hypertension treatment requires continuity. For this reason, the drugs given by the specialist should be used within a routine.

Which Department Should Hypertension Patients Apply?

For people with hypertension complaints, the section varies according to the diseases accompanying the complaints. However, these departments can be listed as nutrition and dietetics, endocrinology, internal medicine (internal medicine), cardiology and nephrology.

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